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Children and Family Separation – Fathers' Rights Explained

Family breakups can be distressing for all involved. The press frequently reports on situations turning ugly, being unfair and too often suggesting there is a difference between the rights of a father and mother in raising and seeing their children.

Many parents in this situation do not see eye to eye or are so angry with the other parent that they use access to their children as a pawn in a protracted process. Making fair and sensible arrangements in these circumstances can be extremely difficult.

This article is intended to provide a basic understanding of family law in the UK. However, if you are reading this article because it is directly applicable to you then we would strongly advocate seeking additional explanation regarding your specific legal position.

What rights does a father have?

A father living in the UK has a right to participate in decision-making regarding his children and to see his children regularly according to the family law UK. When exercised, this right is termed co-parenting. However, the legal rights of a father largely depend on whether or not he has parental rights. All fathers who are married to their child’s mother or listed on the birth certificate as the father, automatically have joint parental responsibility with the mother. A father who is not married to the mother, or not listed on the child’s birth certificate, can apply to the court to be granted parental responsibility or can come to an agreement with the mother for joint parental responsibility.

What does parental responsibility mean under UK family law?

In law “Parental responsibility” is defined as “all the rights, duties, powers, responsibilities and authority which by law a parent of a child has in relation to the child and the child’s property”. This covers day-to-day decisions regarding a child including how the child will be raised, by what name he or she will be known, which school he or she attends, religious upbringing, holidays abroad, what medical treatment is considered appropriate and so on.

How can a father protect or enforce his rights?

If a father considers he is not being consulted about major issues regarding his children, a straightforward letter to the child’s mother that sets out the father’s wishes, the law, and his rights may help. The same applies if the father believes that the children are not being given the opportunity to spend sufficient time with him.

Mediation is always strongly encouraged for family disputes and generally can lead to a good outcome. However, if neither of these options is successful in arriving at a solution that both parties are happy with, then the only option is for a family court or a family law arbitrator to decide the matter for you.

A court order is the only way to enforce legal rights. You can apply to the family court for a range of different orders that will allow a father to spend time with his child or make other arrangements such as living arrangements. The starting point for the court or arbitrator is that the children have the right to have a meaningful and fulfilling relationship with both parents if it is safe to do so. A father can also request a sole or a joint residency order so that the child lives partially or totally at his home. This, of course, will depend on many factors including the wishes of the child, the relationship between the father and his child, siblings and other family members or support networks.

The aim of any court order will be to ensure the best outcome for the child and to protect them from physical or psychological harm. There will be a series of short hearings and the judge will then make a decision taking into account the evidence and the factors above. The child’s welfare is the paramount concern of any court case.


When couples separate, it is often assumed that the children will remain with, and be cared for by the mother, but this does not have to be the case. Children have a right to a meaningful relationship with their fathers too.

If you or someone you know wants more information about family law in the UK or needs help or advice, kindly contact us on 0121 686 3170 or email


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